Exam 1 :: Important Information

The revolution of art in the 19th century took place in France.

David is the official artist of the French revolutionary artists. His art would redirect the entire path of art in the 19th century

The “Oath of the Horatii” is ranked as the most important work of early Neo-classicism.

David is the first painter to the emperor Napoleon.

The Pantheon’s severe geometry is typical of French architecture.

America’s first true classicist is John Vanderlyn.

The 19th century is a century for the Romantics.

Washington Allston was the greatest of the early American Romantic painters (he was English trained).

William Blake came closer to any other romantic artist to reviving pre-renaissance forms.

Rome was the site for sculptural revival.

Canova’s least classical work was “Venus Italica”.

Canova’s most famous work is “Pauline Bonaparte as Venus Victrix”.

Horatio Greenough was a prolific essayist and the first of a line of Americans to settle in Italy.

Horatio Greenough was America’s first and most fervent Neo-classical sculptor.

William Rinehart’s work can be seen as the “Swan Song” of American sculpture.

“Jupiter and Thetis” by Ingres may be his most bazaar painting as is a full pictorial expression that can stand alone.

All of Ingres’ paintings are considered Neoclassical, but they have both Manneristic and Romantic tendencies.

The Troubadour style is closer to the Romantic era not Neoclassical.

Recoswas are figures placed in the foreground of an image (usually on the left and right) to draw the viewer into the painting.

Ingres and Delacroix are the two painters to define French painting after David.

Ingres is rated one of the best portrait painters, but his one great limitation is not always illustrating the character of the sitter.

Ingres’ career marks the end of the Neoclassical era and the move into Romanticism.

The 19th century is about inovations! It reshaped and blurred the lines between the traditional and the unconventional.

The one supreme constant during the 19th century was the annual salon, a social and artistic phenomenon that could make or break an artist.

The French Salon was mounted in 1667 by the French Royal Academy of Art.

Neoclassicism used logic to govern art while Romanticism used instinct to govern art.

Johann Winckelmann was the first modern historian and thought greek art was the greatest and should be followed.

Edward Gibbon wrote “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”.

Neoclassicism is a reaction against the Rococo and Baroque; In favor of high moral purpose sought to improve the world through reason, morality, and resurrecting models from antiquity.

The qualities of Neoclassicism are: strong colors, clearly defined contour lines, and structural forms.

Modern painting begins with David’s break from tradition.

In David’s stoic paintings there is a realism of light and texture taken from Carravaggio.

David’s “The Oath of the Horatii” was a pre-revolutionary attack on the monarchy.

“The Death of Marat” by David was shaped by historical facts and Neoclassical theory.

With “The Death of Marat,” David creates a new type of heroic image with an aim to link with the classical past.

David paints action without movement with realistic anatomy and ideal beauty.

The most important works of David’s life were during his “Napoleon period”.

The twin dangers of David’s paintings: his excessive imitation of the ancients and the idealization of contemporary events.

In David’s “Self-Portrait,” he favors realism over idealization.

David’s last great image before his death is the theatrical, “Mars Disarmed by Venus and the Three Graces” (greek/mythological subject).

Marguerite Gerard was known for her genre scenes.

Jean Antoine Houdon was the finest French sculptor of the late 18th-early19th century.

Sculptor, Houdon focuses on precise anatomy, realism, and classical form.

Pierre Vignon’s “La Madeleine” is based on Roman temple form and was intended as propaganda from Napoleon.

Copley invents Romantic Horror painting with “Watson and the Shark”.

Classicism outside of France does not reach the same importance.

West documents historical and Neoclassical themes long before David.

West paints a range of historical, biblical, and classical themes.

West, court painter to King George III, was the most prolific illustrator of the past, and his present.

David was the founder fo Neoclassicism, but West was the pioneer.

West combines realism, history, contemporary dress, and authentic locations with religious undertones.

Romanticism shows renewed interest in classicism and various emotions (terror, exoticism, the sublime…).

West anticipated 19th century Romanticism.

Sublime: (popular in the 19th century Romantics) equal to beauty but opposite in nature. Popularized by the idea of terror and awe

John Vanderlyn was the best trained American painter of his time.

John Vanderlyn painted fully classical paintings with the emotional element of Romanticism.

John Vanderlyn brings the female nude to America.

Gottlieb Schick’s “Portrait of Mrs. Von Dannnecker” is German Neoclassical.

Casper David Friedrich painted Romantic landscapes embodying the sublime.

In German painting landscapes become more important than figures.

Friedrich attempts to escape material world by showing divinity in nature.

Influenced by art of the Middle Ages, Philipp Otto Runge highlights mysticism and religion in his paintings.

Runge was a German Romanticist and emphasized color over lines and drawing.

Romanticism did not flourish in Germany because of Runge’s death.

German painter, Overbeck, was part of the Nazarenes (followers of St. Luke); He imitates 15th century style painting which was sterile and uninventive.

Washington Allston painted emotionalized Romantic scenes.

Allston based paintings on literature (ex: “The Flight of Florimell” is based on “The Fairy Queen”.

William Blake was a visionary, poet, and Romantic painter revolting agist current philosophy and the Royal Academy.

William Blake invents relief etching (Book of Job).

“Glad Day or Morning” was one of Blake’s early works concentrating on outlines rather than depth.

Henry Fuseli was a Swiss Romantic painter who moved to London.

David’s rival was Jean-Baptiste Regnault who was dedicated to classical forms.

Bertel Thorvaldsen (Danish) was the first Neoclassical sculptor to best rivive Greek sculpture.

Canova’s sculptures were ideal, Neoclassical, and usually sexual/erotic.

Erastus Dow Palmer had no formal training in sculpture. His forms were not Neoclassical and idealized but were realistic and naturalistic.

Rimmer was a doctor and had understanding of anatomy. His sculptures usually had themes of death and violence.

Rimmer anticipates Surrealism with “Flight and Pursuit”.

Ingres’ “Vow of Louis XIII” marks the end of Davidian formula.

By 1830 Romanticism is fully out and is an accepted style in France.

Ingres was the second generation leader of the Neoclassical movement.

Troubadour style: meant to rivive the art and life of the Middle Ages.

Ingres’ 2 late works are “La Source” and “The Turkish Bath”.

Neoclassicism: specific homage to Grecco/Roman world.

Romanticism: growing fascination with non-classical, imperfect order.

Jean-Baptiste Corot was a French Realist.